The word that is used most often is Land. For example, Deutschland roughly translates as the country (land) of Germans.
In some cases, Staat can also be used. For example, two words for citizenship in German are:
- Staatsangehörigkeit – Staat = country, angehörig = affiliated, -keit = -ness
- Staatsbürgershaft – Staat = country, bürger = citizen, -schaft = status (-ship)
In addition, the word Land itself can have other meanings in other contexts, such as auf dem Land meaning “in the country/countryside”, Landwirtschaft (agricultural sector/farming/husbandry/agronomy), Bundesland (federal state), an Land (onshore, ashore), etc.